Characterization of the economic system in Iraq .. National Almarkintalip between free market and decentralization of the State / Studies
Conscious Center for Studies and Research / by the Iraqi Central Mstcharalpennek d. The appearance of Mohammed Saleh
Known as a System As a unit complex made up of many different parts all subject to the general plan, or they serve a public goal, and on this context, behaviorism, the U.S., for example, to present a concept of system is currently only over the scope of the surround that clips are segments Consists of the structure of the system and the clips are outside the system. And that the constituent sections of the structure of the system, which is sometimes called the limits of boundaries Or variables that are in the level of interactions are more intensive in their conduct and behavior than others. If the densities or the border or political variables, they are a political system Or intensities of social Vtkon social system or economic Vtkon densities of economic system and so on.
In spite of this, the characterization of the economic system is one of the issues which can not be stripped of its own school and ideological currents associated with them, and on this basis to know the writer of ancient economic Joan Robinson Robinson In her book, renowned economic philosophy, the economic system that: Unit requires a set of sentences with the availability of an ideology that justify (provisions) and the level of awareness enjoyed by any individual as it perseveres in order to achieve these verdicts, and on this basis must be the availability of Devices Which consists of the economic system operates to perform three functions are:
First: that assist in the identification of (is) more effective in the decision to move and mobilize resources among the various people from decision makers, economic choice.
Second: to coordinate the activities of individual economic units. The sense that they help to identify (how) decisions are made.
And third: working to make the economic decision-makers the option to order more in the order of priority. Any assistance in determining the meaning (what) can take its decisions.
In this regard can be seen that all economic systems involved in the three main objectives are:
Efficient use and destruction of scarce resources, and equitable distribution of income (with the reservation status of being very dependent relative time and place to achieve that justice), and finally the growth in GDP over time.
And can be conceptually split of the means referred to above Devices To which the economic system to: tools tools Ways and methods . And all the tools and methods to answer questions (of) f (what) to reflect on the composition of the economic system.
At the level of economic theory, we can conclude that there are (two ways) and (tools) extremist in the allocation of economic resources represent two different models of the economic system and are highly competitive markets using relative prices in the allocation of resources and minimalist-oriented economies centrally in the use of material resources and their allocation. Lama (Almtpartytan these tools) in the allocation of resources were: the individual property to all means of production and minimalist public ownership of all means of production. Upon re-installation of the way first with the first tool we get the model of full market competition, a model that does not exist on the ground. As well as when it is installed (the second method with the second tool) we get a specimen wave or so-called economic dictatorship termed including model, this model is verified at the present time.
Based on the foregoing counting characterization of the economic system of Iraq is necessary to diagnose the level of the shift in economic policy of the current after the experience of the country experienced through more than half a decade in the midst of the framework of a rentier state central moving Adiologgio towards market democracy, but stuck with wealth and GDP after Totrt to the extent remote Nyuklashiki economic model or a liberal to a certain extent, a specimen which considers Hamas the importance of separating free-market economy and the business sector for government activity. It was believed that the role of the government’s economic excluding the oil sector profit-taking limited to the performance of the exercise of its oversight function and oversee the overall economic activity and provide some basic public goods and leave the activity to swim or drown himself for the advancement of the burdens of development. Making the idea of consumer sovereignty overshadow the idea of the rule of product, both at the level of the state budget or the level of the balance sheet in the behavior of the family unit. This is confirmed by the behavior of the general budget in the tyranny of its operating expenses and the rule of the government-funded consumer nature of the rentier oil resources, making the activity is strongly related to consumer activity to the government and the prompt collection of profit and away from the access Areas of the development of real investment unless provided by the government in a grant, as it is expressed by the phenomenon of Alttoralsria to trade consumer goods and consumer finance in the extreme forms and low productive activity to your lowest point in the history of the country’s productive. On this basis, the economic system, printed the prevalence of the phenomenon of rent collection or the pursuit of rents as is termed rent seeking To be the focus of today Maevkr its activity in the abuse of economic activity and interconnected with the economic activity of government, or perhaps could be argued that activity intrudes parasitize Clicks on government rent-seeking activity. The concept of going out to collect rent or rent-seeking: the way in which they are used the real resources of the country in order to capture the economic surplus, which is often collected in unearned revenue. Special euphoria Maysay to pay a lot of economic policy trends lead to success Nominal Atold the scope of sustainable value-added and Toverwe often Mviaderantegep or investment influential has the ability and the objective conditions on the sustainability of development, except to maximize the collection of rents, Kaltmta exemptions significant tax or benefit from protectionist policies and a wide or indulge issues of the deterioration of exchange rates to generate economic activity, high costs for Aicyr Aessand stability and development, a phenomenon dubbed the right book Rowley, Tollison and Tullock (1988 ) Marked in their book: The Political Economy in the collection of rent or rent-seeking, as successes lead to the collection of profit through activities directly unproductive.
The Iraqi economy in the conditions of the current rent is when they need to Doractsadi of the state facilitates the partnership and integration with private activity, through the installation intellectual and economic methodology The return to Almarkintalip new economic and promote the activities Adiologgio erecting of the market or so-called supporters of the movement activity of joint-stock companies – comprised of state ownership and the ownership of the individual together corporatists Or rather what can be called Palmarkintalin neo-neo-mercantilists A view that sees economic alliance between the activity of the state and the business sector is a decisive shift towards economic performance and social optimum and high harmony and compatibility in the generation of well-established pattern of sustainable development.
And return us move to the old tradition and applications Almarkintalip or trade of the seventeenth century, as it is believed Almarkintaliwn economic role of active state in order to stimulate export trade and to discourage the import of final goods and the construction of monopolies in trade so to speak can help to strengthen the business sector and the power of government at the same time ( But wherever he was under the principle of trade will reach Banners Trade and the flag and moving together). And noticed that this idea still remains to the present day and adopted by the emerging power export of Great Algioboltk or new, and in particular China, which Aghernt Power of the state wealth to reach the balance of trade surplus, as well as the continued strengthening of the political strength and its military by highlighting the role of the state – nation, nation state In the economic life or Maistalh today’s economy of force For the redistribution of capital accumulation and the restoration of the central economic surplus historic fishing world.
And despite the fact that Adam Smith and his followers in the interpretation of the Wealth of Nations even has won the ideological battle until the present time between the two forms of capitalism and the mean for the model of free-market about the form Almarkintali new, but the facts on the ground has shown a lot of ambiguity in the treatise The Wealth of Nations. Growth leading to Japan in the past decades, especially my contract the fifties and sixties and South Korea in the sixties and eighties my contract and China since the early eighties all economies have shown that there is an active role to lead the Government together with the extensive activities performed by the private business sector. All these activities have stimulated investment and exports are widely and reduced the chances of import. As China is today at the highest level of savings and the highest level of economic surplus in recent years to use the teachings Almarkintalip widely. And the idea of Adam Smith in his famous book The Wealth of Nations (1776) and his accusing Markintalin that they are people who did not distinguish between the (wealth) and between what can be called (Palmzkhorat or treasures), noting that the accumulation of Almzkhorat of gold, silver, and achieve the balance of trade surplus as he wanted Almarkintaliwn is just a means of For a wealth of perishable goods for consumption or use has found what contradicted really models of capitalism. as demonstrated Schools Almarkintalip new that the model of capitalist economy – of Tzafarnchat state and the market – is the form most successful in the development and the adoption by emerging markets in China, Brazil and Russia and India is unlike the liberal doctrine of absolute wealth of nations.
Our country is dominated by the state percentage was probably about 80% of the gross domestic product in time, urban, leaving the rate of 20% or slightly more to the private activity, is today desperately need an economic system Markintali new can discover the close relationship between the activity of the state’s economic the private business sector to promote development and re-characterization of the relationship and re-structure away from the mystery schools led by liberal Awalclaskip new cycle of economic life of the nations of the Third World Given that the crisis International financial and economic current has demonstrated the role of the United Almarkintalip new and thought Almarkintali in restoring stability and growth to the global economy.
Reflects the fact, analytical, after excluding the oil sector of the components of GDP, the dominance of the private sector rate of approximately 65% of the total overall activity of the country, but it is indeed regrettable, we find that 65% of this activity is typically expressed the rule of the activities of municipal weak link productive activities Awalastosmari real what has become an incubator for the market the actual unemployment. Accordingly, the present approach the heavily from the liberal thought Awalenzat neo-classical, which sees the state model as merely a means by pleading Hama Avlatonion of consumer sovereignty, as they say in the economic literature Platonic guardians of consumer sovereignty To be leaving off and a shift towards investment and partnership between public and private sectors the promise of this partnership possible alternative through the availability of factors of a central head is the legal framework governing the partnerships public, private and procedures for the selection and implementation of partnerships du public finance in this context and the contractual obligations which they are based partnership, as well as transparency and full disclosure of all risks public money to it, make it clear that any public money and simplified way to two research papers for rent or rent collection rent seekers Alygrar what is prevalent in the present time. With this partnership can be created between the public and private sectors through contracts Alamtyazawacod rental and operating infrastructure projects in specific locations.
Finally, a true partnership in the rentier state is a realistic way to shift from central to economic democracy, the market and put the proceeds of oil and overall revenues at the wheel of the real investment of the open economy and the restructuring of the private sector and change the reality of the fragile by generating the momentum of investment companies and production companies to contribute to the erecting of the market and binoculars for the economic well and social opportunities and strengthen the production and use in the formal labor market and to ensure that the individual strongly community-based cooperative and Bmstrkath them all. And this has to be replaced by the style capital of the state to shake-style stage, neo-classical current, which has lost the economic development position desired to the style capitalist Almarkintali new, and in a way strengthens opportunities for development resources of the nation and the wealth of existing and prevent the country from the central economic and blanks thought the neo-classical in the description of movements market and the state ( an economic pattern of the current political, which lost the country a lot of conditions substantive economic and social development) to the pattern of depth of market democracy, and according to the vision Markintalip new, strong generation of strategic partnership between the market and the rentier state, Taatzafar where power and wealth in Gioboltk Iraq talk.